Located in north-eastern part of Central Asia. On the southwest side by side with the Republic of Tajikistan to the west - with Uzbekistan in the north - with Kazakhstan, on the east and south - with China. Kyrgyzstan - a multi-ethnic republic. The most significant part of the population are Kirghiz (about 50%). Until the mid 20's. XX century. they were called, or Karakirgiz dikokamennymi (mountain), Kyrgyz, and up to 90 years. - Kyrgyz. Fairly large group of Kirghiz live in Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and also in western China and eastern Afghanistan. In its anthropological look of the Kirghiz, like their neighbors, the Kazakhs are a South Siberian type. They are characterized by medium height, dark, often black, straight hair, brown eyes, a flat, broad face, and Mongoloid slit eyes. The language belongs to the Kipchak group of Kirghiz-eastern branch of the Turkic languages. Modern kyrgyz script based on Cyrillic.
In addition to the Kirghiz Kyrgyzstan has a large community of Uzbeks (13%) who settled mainly in the south. A significant proportion of the population is Russian and Russian-speaking peoples living in the north (25%). From other people live here Uighurs, Kazakhs, Tajiks, Dungan, Tatars, Germans, Jews, etc.
Bishkek - the capital of Kyrgyzstan. The city is located in the north of the republic, in the Chu valley. This is an important cultural and economic area. In the first half of XIX century. this place was a military fortification Pishpek - north-eastern outpost of the Kokand khanate. In 1860 it was destroyed by Russian troops, and at this point, there was a military settlement, around which began to settle immigrants from Russia. Development Pishpek contributed to its convenient location at the crossroads of caravan routes linking the city with the Ferghana Faithful (Almaty). In 1878 Pishpek was granted city status. In 1917 there lived 17 thousand people, which was the main occupation of trade and izvozny fishing. The city was famous for its gardens. In 1926 Pishpek became the center of the Kyrgyz ASSR and was renamed Frunze - in honor of the Bolshevik revolutionary and Soviet military leader MV Frunze. The old name of the city was returned February 6, 1991, but in the new transcription - Bishkek. Today it is a major industrial and cultural center. The city has the engineering industry, food and light industries, there are universities, institutes and numerous research institutions. There is opera and ballet theaters, a philharmonic society, circus, museums, stadiums.
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